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The Italian word for "beans", usually white kidney beans. String beans are called fagiolini.
A temperature scale in which 32° represents freezing and 212° represents the steam point. The scale was devised by Gabriel Daniel Fahrenheit, an 18th-century German physicist. To convert Fahrenheit temperatures to Celsius, subtract 32 from the Fahrenheit reading, multiply by 5 and divide by 9.
Skirt steak that has been marinated in a mixture of oil, lime juice, red pepper and garlic for at least 24 hours before being grilled. The cooked meat is cut into strips that are then usually wrapped (burrito-style) in warm tortillas, accompanied by a variety of garnishes including grilled onions and sweet peppers, guacamole, refried beans and salsa.
Falafel; felafel -
A Middle Eastern specialty consisting of small, deep-fried croquettes or balls made of highly spiced, ground chickpeas. They`re generally tucked inside pita bread, sandwich-style, but can also be served as appetizers. A yogurt- or tahini-based sauce is often served with falafel.
Farce; farci -
Farce is the French word for "stuffing". Farci means "stuffed".
Farfalle; farfallini; farfallone -
Pasta shaped like small butterflies or bow ties. Farfallini are the smallest butterflies, farfallone the largest.
1. An egg-noodle dough that is grated or minced and used in soups. 2. In Jewish cookery, farfel refers to food - such as dried noodles - broken into small pieces.
Made from cereal grains, farina is a bland-tasting flour or meal that, when cooked in boiling water, makes a hot breakfast cereal. It`s very easily digested and rich in protein.
Farl; farle -
1. A thin Scottish griddle cake made of oatmeal or flour and cut into triangular wedges. Farls, which are similar to scones, take their name from the word fardel meaning "fourth part" and referring to a fourth part or quarter cut of a round cake. 2. The triangular wedge shape of such a cut cake is also referred to as a "farl".
Farmer cheese -
This fresh cheese is a form of cottage cheese from which most of the liquid has been pressed. The very dry farmer cheese is sold in a solid loaf. It has a mild, slightly tangy flavor and is firm enough to slice or crumble. It`s an all-purpose cheese that can be eaten as is or used in cooking.
Fasnacht; fastnacht -
A yeast-raised potato pastry that`s deep-fried like a doughnut. Fasnachts were originally made and served on Shrove Tuesday to use up the fat that was forbidden during Lent. They`re diamond-shaped and often have a slit cut down the center before frying. They first appeared in Pennsylvania, though there is some argument whether the actual origin is German or Dutch.
Often confused with salt pork (which comes from the sides and belly of a pig), fatback is the fresh (unsmoked and unsalted) layer of fat that runs along the animal`s back. It is used to make lard and cracklings and for cooking - especially in many Southern recipes. Salt-cured fatback is also sometimes available. All fatback should be refrigerated: fresh up to a week, cured up to a month.
Fava bean -
This tan, rather flat bean resembles a very large lima bean. It comes in a large pod that, unless very young, is inedible. Fava beans can be purchased dried, cooked in cans and, infrequently, fresh. If you find fresh fava beans, choose those with pods that aren`t bulging with beans, which indicates age. Fava beans have a very tough skin, which should be removed by blanching before cooking. They`re very popular in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern dishes, can be cooked in a variety of ways and are often used in soups. Also called faba bean, broad bean and horse bean
Italian for "little faithful ones", referring culinarily to very fine spaghetti.
Brazil`s most famous regional dish, feijoada is an assorted platter of thinly sliced meats (such as sausages, pig`s feet and ears, beef and smoked tongue) accompanied by side dishes of rice, black beans, shredded kale or collard greens, hearts of palm, orange slices and hot peppers.
Native to Asia and southern Europe, this aromatic plant is known for its pleasantly bitter, slightly sweet seeds. Its leaves (not generally available in the United States) can be used in salads. Fenugreek seeds, which come whole and ground, are used to flavor many foods including curry powders, spice blends and teas. Fenugreek seeds should be stored in a cool, dark place for no more than 6 months
A process by which a food goes through a chemical change caused by enzymes produced from bacteria, microorganisms or yeasts. Fermentation alters the appearance and/or flavor of foods and beverages such as beer, buttermilk, cheese, wine, vinegar and yogurt.
Fermented black beans -
Also called Chinese black beans and salty black beans, this Chinese specialty consists of small black soybeans that have been preserved in salt before being packed into cans or plastic bags. They have an extremely pungent, salty flavor and must be soaked in warm water for about 30 minutes before using. Fermented black beans are usually finely chopped before being added to fish or meat dishes as a flavoring. They can be stored, tightly covered, in the refrigerator for up to a year. If the beans begin to dry out, a few drops of peanut oil will refresh them.
Feta cheese -
This classic Greek cheese is traditionally made of sheep`s or goat`s milk, though today large commercial producers often make it with cow`s milk. Because it`s cured and stored in its own salty whey brine, feta is often referred to as pickled cheese. White, crumbly and rindless, feta is usually pressed into square cakes. It has a rich, tangy flavor, contains from 45 to 60 percent milk fat and can range in texture from soft to semidry. Feta makes a zesty addition to salads and many cooked dishes.
Fettucce; fettuccelle -
Both are fettuccine noodles, with fettucce the broadest, at about 1/2 inch wide; the 1/8-inch wide fettuccelle are the narrowest.
Fettuccine Alfredo -
Roman restaurateur Alfredo di Lello is credited with creating this dish in the 1920s. The fettuccine is enrobed in a rich sauce of butter, grated Parmesan cheese, heavy cream and plentiful grindings of black pepper. Other noodles may be substituted for the fettuccine.
Fettuccine; fettuccini -
Egg noodles cut into flat, narrow (about 3/8-inch) strips.
French for "flaky" or "puff pastry". Also called pate feuilletee.
Fiber, dietary -
Also referred to as roughage, dietary fiber is that portion of plant-related foods (such as fruits, legumes, vegetables and whole grains) that cannot be completely digested. Statistics maintain that high-fiber diets reduce cholesterol levels and cancer rates.
Field pea -
A variety of yellow or green pea grown specifically for drying. These peas are dried and usually split along a natural seam, in which case they`re called split peas. Whole and split dried field peas are available packaged in supermarkets and in bulk in health-food stores. Field peas do not usually require presoaking before cooking.
Figaro sauce -
Tomato puree and minced parsley are added to hollandaise sauce for this rich accompaniment to fish or poultry.
A boneless piece of meat or fish. Filet is the French spelling. fillet v. To cut the bones from a piece of meat or fish, thereby creating a meat or fish fillet.
This pale, delicate, very dry Spanish wine is considered by many to be the world`s finest Sherry. Finos are excellent when young, but should not be aged because they don`t improve and may lose some of their vitality. They are often served chilled as an aperitif.
All fish are broken down into two very broad categories - fish and shellfish. In the most basic terms, fish are equipped with fins, backbones and gills, while shellfish have shells of one form or another. Fish without shells are separated into two groups - freshwater fish and saltwater fish. Because salt water provides more buoyancy than fresh water, saltwater fish - such as cod, flounder and tuna - can afford to have thicker bones. Freshwater fish - like catfish, perch and trout - can`t be weighted with a heavy skeletal framework. Instead, their structure is based on hundreds of minuscule bones, a source of frustration to many diners.
adj. A term describing a food, such as pie crust, with a dry texture that easily breaks off into flat, flakelike pieces.
Flamande, a la -
A la flamande is French for "in the Flemish style," indicating a garnish of braised cabbage, carrots, turnips, potatoes and sometimes pork or sausages. It's a classic accompaniment for meat or poultry.
French for "flamed" or "flaming," this dramatic method of food presentation consists of sprinkling certain foods with liquor, which, after warming, is ignited just before serving.
1. A strip of beef from the chuck end of the short ribs. 2. A Jewish dish using this cut of beef, which is boiled and usually served with horseradish.
A species of fish (including flounder, halibut and sole) characterized by a rather flat body, with both eyes located on the upper side. Flatfish swim on one side only; the side facing downwards is always very pale.
A cold drink made with liquor or wine mixed with sugar and egg, then shaken or blended until frothy. Early flips made in England and Colonial America were warmed by plunging a red-hot poker into the brew just before serving.
Though Austrian bakers are credited with inventing these cookies, their name implies an Italian heritage. They`re a mixture of butter, sugar, cream, honey, candied fruit (and sometimes nuts) that is cooked in a saucepan before being dropped into mounds on a cookie sheet and baked. The chewy, candylike florentines often have a chocolate coating on one side.
1. Fondue au fromage is a classic dish of Swiss heritage consisting of cheese melted and combined with white wine, kirsch and seasonings. Bite-size chunks of French bread are dipped into the hot, savory mixture. 2. Fondue bourguignonne is a variation whereby cubes of raw beef are cooked in a pot of hot oil, then dipped into various savory sauces. 3. Chocolate fondue, a combination of melted chocolate, cream and sometimes liqueur into which fruit or cake may be dipped. 4. In French cooking, the term "fondue" refers to finely chopped vegetables that have been reduced to a pulp by lengthy and slow cooking. This mixture is often used as a garnish, usually with meats or fish.
England is the home of this old-fashioned but delicious dessert made of cooked, pureed fruit that is strained, chilled and folded into whipped cream. The fruit mixture may be sweetened or not. Fool is traditionally made from gooseberries, though today any fruit may be substituted.
Formosa Oolong tea -
Hailing from Taiwan (previously known as Formosa), this tea is considered one of the world`s best, which also makes it quite expensive. It creates a pale yellow brew that has a flavor reminiscent of peaches.
Fortified wine -
A wine to which brandy (or other spirit) has been added in order to increase alcoholic content. Such wines include port, sherry and many dessert wines.
French for "whisk."