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Culinary dictionary

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All words: 40

Galantine - 
[GAL-uhn-teen, gal-ahn-TEEN] A classic French dish that resembles a meat-wrapped pate. It`s made from poultry, meat or fish that is boned and stuffed with a forcemeat, which is often studded with flavor- and eye-enhancers such as pistachio nuts, olives and truffles. The stuffed meat roll is formed into a symmetrical loaf, wrapped in cheesecloth and gently cooked in stock. It`s then chilled, glazed with aspic made from its own jellied stock and garnished with items (such as pistachios, olives and truffles) that have been included in the filling. Galantines are normally served cold, cut in slices.

Galette - 
[gah-LEHT] Hailing from France, a galette is a round, rather flat cake made of flaky-pastry dough, yeast dough or sometimes unleavened dough. The term also applies to a variety of tarts, both savory and sweet, and there are as many variations as there are French regions. They may be topped with fruit, jam, nuts, meat, cheese, etc. Galette des Rois, the traditional cake served during Twelfth Night festivities, often contains a bean or other token, which is guaranteed to bring the recipient good luck.

Galliano - 
[gal-LYAH-noh] A sweet, anise-flavored, golden yellow liqueur made in Italy.

Gallimaufry - 
[gal-luh-MAW-free] Culinarily, this word refers to any dish with a hodgepodge of ingredients, such as a stew, ragout or hash.

Ganache - 
[gahn-AHSH] A rich chocolate icing made of semisweet chocolate and whipping cream that are heated and stirred together until the chocolate has melted. The mixture is cooled until lukewarm and poured over a cake or torte. Ganache souffle is made from the same base but often includes a tablespoon or so of rum or cognac. When cooled to room temperature, the mixture is whipped to approximately twice its original volume. Whereas ganache is used to glaze cakes, pastries and tortes, ganache souffl is generally used to fill them.

Garbure - 
[gar-BOOR] A vegetable or meat soup so thick it could be considered a stew or casserole dish. Garbure has many variations, but most commonly contains cabbage, beans, potatoes and bits of pork, bacon or preserved goose. It`s usually served with toasted or fried bread. Garbure is immensely popular with Basques and the most famous version comes from Bearn, France.

Garde manger - 
[gahrd mahn-ZHAY] A French term for the cool, well-ventilated pantry area (usually in hotels and large restaurants) where cold buffet dishes are prepared and other foods are stored in refrigerated units. Some of the items prepared in a garde manger are salads, pates, chaud-froids and other decorative dishes. The person in charge of this area is known as chef garde manger.

Garlic - 
Garlic has long been credited with providing and prolonging physical strength and was fed to Egyptian slaves building the giant pyramids. Throughout the centuries, its medicinal claims have included cures for toothaches, consumption, open wounds and evil demons. A member of the lily family, garlic is a cousin to leeks, chives, onions and shallots. The edible bulb or "head" grows beneath the ground. This bulb is made up of sections called cloves, each encased in its own parchmentlike membrane.

Garlic bread - 
Said to have been invented during the late 1940s boom of Italian-American restaurants, garlic bread consists of Italian or French bread slices, spread on both sides with garlic butter and heated in the oven. There are many variations, including bread brushed with olive oil and sprinkled with minced garlic and herbs. It can also be broiled or grilled.

Garlic butter - 
Softened butter blended with crushed or minced garlic. The intensity of the garlic flavor is governed by the amount of garlic used and the length of time the mixture is allowed to stand. Garlic butter is used on a broad range of foods including garlic bread, escargots, meats, poultry, fish and vegetables.

Garlic press - 
A kitchen tool used to press a garlic clove through small holes, thereby extracting both pulp and juice. Leaving the skin on the clove facilitates cleaning, which should be done immediately after pressing, before any garlic left in the press dries. The press can also be set in a cup of warm water until cleaning time. Some presses contain teeth that push garlic fragments back out through the holes, making cleaning much easier. Garlic presses can be made of aluminum, stainless steel and strong plastics.

Garni - 
[gahr-NEE] The French word for "garnish" when used as an adjective describing a food. For example, "steak garni" usually means it`s accompanied by vegetables and potatoes.

Garnish - 
n. A decorative, edible accompaniment to finished dishes, from appetizers to desserts. Garnishes can be placed under, around or on food, depending on the dish. They vary from simple sprigs of parsley or exotically carved vegetables on plated food, to croutons in soup, to chocolate leaves on top of chocolate mousse. Garnishes should not only be appealing to the eye, but should also echo or complement the flavor of the dish. garnish v. To decorate or accompany a dish with a garnish.

Garniture - 
[gahr-nih-TEUR] The French word for "garnish", used as a noun.

Garum - 
[GAR-uhm] The ancient Romans used garum as a flavoring much like salt. This extremely pungent sauce was made by fermenting fish in a brine solution for several days in the sun. The resulting liquid was combined with various other flavorings such as oil, pepper, wine and spices.

Gaspergoo; gaspergou - 
[gas-per-GOO] A freshwater drum that inhabits deep rivers and lakes throughout the United States. Also known as goo or gou, this fish has a white, lean flesh with a succulently sweet flavor. Gaspergoo is most commonly available in the spring and summer months. It`s suitable for frying, grilling, pan-frying or steaming.

Gastronome - 
[GAS-truh-nohm] A connoisseur of good food - someone with a refined palate.

Gastronomy - 
[gas-TRON-uh-mee] The art of fine dining; the science of gourmet food and drink.

Gastropod - 
[GAS-truh-pod] Often referred to as a univalve, a gastropod can be any of several mollusks with a single (univalve) shell and single muscle. Among the more common gastropods are the abalone, limpet, periwinkle, snail and whelk. With a few exceptions (such as the abalone), gastropods are not as highly regarded culinarily as bivalve mollusks such as the clam and oyster.

Gateau - 
[ga-TOH] The French word for "cake", which can refer to those both plain and fancy.

Gazpacho - 
[gahz-PAH-choh] A refreshingly cold, summertime soup hailing from the Andalusia region in southern Spain. This uncooked soup is usually made from a pureed mixture of fresh tomatoes, sweet bell peppers, onions, celery, cucumber, bread crumbs, garlic, olive oil, vinegar and sometimes lemon juice. Gazpacho can be a meal in itself, particularly when extra fresh vegetables such as sliced celery, green onion, cucumber and green pepper are added. Popular garnishes include croutons and diced hard-cooked eggs.

Gelatin - 
[JEHL-uh-tihn] An odorless, tasteless and colorless thickening agent, which when dissolved in hot water and then cooled, forms a jelly. It`s useful for many purposes such as jelling molded desserts and salads, thickening cold soups and glazing chaud-froid preparations. Gelatin is pure protein derived from beef and veal bones, cartilage, tendons and other tissue.

Gelato - 
[jeh-LAH-toh] The Italian word for "ice cream," gelato doesn`t contain as much air as its American counterpart and therefore has a denser texture. An Italian ice cream parlor is called a gelateria.

Genevoise, sauce - 
[zhehn-VWAHZ] This classic sauce for fish combines a mirepoix and brown sauce with red wine and fish fumet. The mixture is cooked, reduced and strained, after which anchovy paste, butter and minced mushrooms are added.

German potato salad - 
A bacon-studded potato salad made with a dressing of bacon fat, vinegar, seasonings and sometimes sugar. German potato salad can be served hot, cold or at room temperature. Favorite additions include minced onion, celery and green pepper.

Gherkin - 
GER-kihn] The young fruit of a variety of small, dark green cucumbers especially grown to make pickles. Gherkins are usually sold in jars, packed in pickling brine. Cornichons are the French version of this pickle.

Giardiniera, alla - 
[ah-lah jahr-dee-NYAY-rah] From the Italian giardiniere ("gardener"), culinarily this term refers to dishes served with mixed sliced vegetables.

Gimlet - 
[GIHM-liht] A cocktail made with sugar syrup, lime juice, vodka or gin and sometimes soda water. According to the British, the secret of a good gimlet is thorough stirring.

Ginger ale - 
A carbonated, ginger-flavored soft drink.

Ginger beer - 
Made in both nonalcoholic and alcoholic forms, this carbonated beverage tastes like ginger ale with a stronger ginger flavor. It`s an integral ingredient in the mixed drink, Moscow mule.

Gingersnap - 
A small, very crisp ginger cookie flavored with molasses.

Gizzard - 
Found in the lower stomach of fowl, this muscular pouch grinds the bird`s food, often with the aid of stones or grit swallowed for this purpose. The portion that actually does the work is in the center of the pouch and is usually removed before the gizzard reaches the market. Gizzards can be very tough unless cooked slowly with moist heat, such as braising.

Glace - 
[GLAHS] The French word for "ice cream."

Glayva - 
[gla-VAH] This Scottish liqueur is made with scotch whisky, honey and a well-guarded herbal formula.

Gloucester cheese - 
[GLOSS-tuhr] Also called double Gloucester, this dense, satiny, golden yellow cheese is one of England`s finest. It was once made only with the milk from Gloucester cows (now almost extinct) and until the end of World War II single (smaller) Gloucester rounds were also available. The mellow, full-flavored double Gloucester comes in large, flat rounds or tall cylinders - both with a natural rind. It`s a fine, multipurpose cheese equally as good with a meal or after it.

Glucose - 
[GLOO-kohs] The most common form of this sugar is dextroglucose, a naturally occurring form commonly referred to as dextrose (also called corn sugar and grape sugar ). This form of glucose has many sources including grape juice, certain vegetables and honey. It has about half the sweetening power of regular sugar. Because it doesn`t crystallize easily, it`s used to make commercial candies and frostings, as well as in baked goods, soft drinks and other processed foods. Corn syrup is a form of glucose made from cornstarch.

Gnocchi - 
[NYOH-kee, NOH-kee] Italian for "dumplings," gnocchi can be made from potatoes, flour or farina. Eggs or cheese can be added to the dough, and finely chopped spinach is also a popular addition. Gnocchi are generally shaped into little balls, cooked in boiling water and served with butter and Parmesan or a savory sauce.

Gohan - 
[goh-HAHN] Japanese cooked white rice that has undergone a precooking process of washing, rinsing and soaking to remove as much starch as possible. This lengthy process can take up to an hour and reduces stickiness in the finished rice.

Goldwasser - 
[GOLT-vahs-sehr, GOLD-vahs-sehr] Also called Danziger Goldwasser, this full-bodied liqueur is flavored with caraway seed, orange peel and spices. Its name, which translates from German as "gold water," comes from the fact that it has minuscule flecks of gold leaf suspended in it. The gold leaf is harmless to drink.

Gnoise - 
[zhayn-WAHZ, zhehn-WAHZ] This rich, light cake is made with flour, sugar, eggs, butter and vanilla. It`s similar in texture to a moist sponge cake. It was developed in Genoa, Italy, adapted by the French and is now baked by gourmet cooks throughout Europe and the United States.

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